Detrimental effects of water in the construction industry.
(moulds, salting and peeling plaster due to humidity)
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One of the fiercest and longest fought struggle of the construction industry targets water (including groundwater, moisture and vapour). It is not only a problem with the construction of swimming pools, underground garages, bridges and tunnels, but virtually everywhere where there is rain, the soil is wet, or humidity tends to be high. Construction industry spends billions of dollars on the fight against water, and various technologies are applied in different construction projects. Most of these technologies are either expensive, or work-demanding; or sometimes they bring about disadvantages that negatively affect applicability. For instance, certain solutions block the passage of both water and the air, and therefore do not let structures "breath" at all.
In general, the foundations of various constructed structures lie under the ground, and are easy targets of dampness, vapour and leaks from rain and groundwater. Construction industry is often in need of making buildings, basements, cellars and other constructed elements watertight. There are several other areas in construction operations where buildings, constructed structures have to be protected against the detrimental effects of water. In such cases, the availability of safely watertight systems becomes important. Water insulation is not only made possible by the application of watertight concrete elements, but can be realized in the form of various sheets or spreadable materials. The implementation of such insulation calls for heightened care and thorough expertise. Damage to the insulating sheets, as well as their incorrect positioning and glue-binding are to be avoided.
Operating mechanism of the Exoline® additive
The micro-grains of the Exoline® additive are extremely small (4µm), and therefore they are able to integrate into the pore system of the cement stone framework, thereby improving the key properties of the pore structure (pore openness, pore size distribution).
The free surfaces of solid materials (internal surfaces of pores) hold excess energy, and this surface energy induces the surface adsorption of water vapour molecules on the internal surfaces of pores. With the integration of the Exoline® additive, this surface energy increases, leading to growth in the quantity of microcrystals grows, and consequently they clog the capillaries to make the concrete structure water-tight. When the Exoline® additive is used, even other detrimental materials (carbonates, chlorides, sulfates) are blocked from penetration.
The use of the Exoline® additive decreases the size of pore systems. In the course of the hardening of the cement slurry, pore size distribution shifts towards smaller pore systems, and as a result solidity improves, whereas penetrability decreases.
Potentially, Exoline® Aqua Stop formulas can be used efficiently in common situations that are difficult to handle, such as the appearance of mould and efflorescence due to humidity and can also be successfully applied in cases when the building needs to be watertight in order to achieve some simple and quick solution that stands the test of time. An important aspect is that the use of this product can replace other systems, such as spreadable insulating materials, film sheets, heavy sheets and other technological solutions. These technologies are obsolete, costly and call for the use of significant quantities of auxiliary materials, while their implementation is strongly dependents on the human factor, which increases the risks, costs and time demand of construction.